We’re leaving school today. Not going far, just to the butcher’s shop at the end of the road. He’s promised to show us how to cut a carcass of lamb into the different joints and since we’ll be cooking some really cheap meat dishes, I need him to persuade the class that cheap can be delicious. Large posters showing pig, beef and lamb are pinned on my classroom wall, free from the Meat and Livestock Commission. The animals have cuddly faces but the rest of the picture looks like a chainsaw massacre. Their body parts have been hacked it into bits and they must learn the names of each cuts and know which pieces are tough or tender. We can’t afford to cook the tender bits, like fillet steak and pork chops, but we make tasty choices such as Lancashire hot pot, nourishing beef stew from skirt, and find many ways to cook beef mince.
Poster with pig cuts
First I must get parental permission so that my students can leave the school grounds.
No-one should trot up the school drive without a note. Well, teachers can go if they ask nicely, but students need proper written authorisation. I’ve seen the bands of naughty students skiving off through the fence at the bottom of the school playing field, but they’ve been too quick for me to chase for long, especially if I’ve got cakes baking in the ovens.
My note for the butcher outing goes like this
Dear Parent /Guardian
Next week I am taking my group to the local butchers to learn about meat.
Please could you give permission for me to take your son/daughter out of school for this lesson?
Please sign below
I agree that Name of student… can go on the visit.
Miss Whitney Head of Home Economics
The week before the outing is tense. If I don’t get all the signed forms back we can’t go, as there is no-one to sit with the forgetful. I suspect that many forms are signed by students, just like their sick notes or the ‘Jimmy could not do his homework because …’ letters.
To raise the profile of my subject and get some school publicity, I’ve asked a photographer from the local newspaper to come to take snaps. I hope my group will impress him so that he will write about the importance of teaching boys and girls how to cook.
We snake down the road in an ordered line and gather in the butcher’s shop.
He heaves a lamb carcass onto the thick wooden block and sharpens his knives on a steel. This is manly, grown up stuff and my group are keen. As he deftly butchers fleshy chunks of meat from the large bones, the lamb is reduced to chops, shoulder and leg, and the cheapest bit that we are going to cook – the rather fatty but very delicious, breast of lamb
I wait in anticipation for news of our visit in the local paper. Will we make the front page? But what a disappointment. For all my talk of modern men and women sharing tasks in the home and family, the reporter has chosen to put us on page three with the sexist headline
‘It’s not easy for mum, is it!’
Underneath is a photo of my class smiling at the butcher and his dead beast. My interview with the reporter ends with a further piece of sexism:
‘Miss Whitney says that the idea is that the girls should get a visual impression of the cutting up of pork and lamb, in addition to what they learn from their textbooks.’
Oh no I didn’t. But it’s too late, and just reinforces the views that mum does the shopping and cooking, and the challenging questions asked by the dads of the future that day are just ignored.
One day, I’ll get things changed. One day!
Back at school Sylvia sharpens our filleting knives ready for them to bone, stuff, roll and tie a breast of lamb. The butcher delivers a pile of plump lamb breasts with strict instructions that they must be the same size and not cost more than 50 pence.
Each cooking place has a plastic tray containing a breast of lamb with a pink stamp on the skin stating New Zealand Lamb, which is the cheapest at the time. The boys jostle for the largest breast, moving from tray to tray like a game of musical chairs.
‘Stand still class, this is serious cooking. Stand by your place and don’t mess about!’
Boning meat is a very skilled task and I want no fooling around.
We’re using sharp knives, which are normally locked away, safe from harm.
Sylvia and I count them out and count them back in at the end of the lesson.
No-one dares to leave the room until all knives are returned.
I use my VERY STERN VOICE for this very serious task. The rib bones need cutting carefully from the flesh of the breast. They gather round.
‘Bert, watch carefully. You must only cut the meat off the lamb bones, not yourself. These knives are sharp and I’ll stop the lesson if anyone messes about. So no stupid behaviour, this is really skilled meat boning like the butcher.’
They set off as Sylvia and I patrol the group like lions watching their young at play, encouraging, warning, and keeping an eye for their safety. We collect the bones, fat and gristle in a large bin for Mr Davey in history to take home for his dog.
‘Spread the flattened lamb with sage and onion stuffing, roll it up and tie it like this.’
I show them how to tie the joint with string using butcher’s knots.
There are no quips today. This is impressive. No chat back. Miss is deadly serious and she will take no nonsense.
A line of neatly tied and stuffed rolled breasts of lamb appears on my table for marking. The butcher would be proud to sell them in his shop. Beside each one is a clean knife.
Then come up for their marks.
‘I’ll cook these for you while you go to your next lesson so they are ready to eat tonight.’
I don’t want anyone munching on raw lamb on the bus home.
They pack and go and once again the room is a culinary haven filled with the fragrance of roasting lamb, and sage and onion stuffing. It feels nourishing and nurturing and I know that these new skills will set them up for family meals in the future – and they might even pass the exam!
Breast of lamb with roast potatoes
1 breast of lamb with the bones in
1 packet of sage and onion stuffing mix
1-2 potatoes for roasting
Buy a breast of lamb in one piece with all the bones still in it. Use a sharp knife to cut round each rib bone. Make sure you don’t pierce through the skin. Take out the rib bones in one piece. Cut off any big bits of fat.
Make the stuffing with a dried sage an onion stuffing mix or make your own from bread, onions and herbs mixed with egg.
Put the boned breast of lamb flat on chopping board, with the skin side on the board. Smooth the stuffing evenly over the top. Roll up the breast of lamb starting with the thin end.
Squeeze it into a roll and then tie with string. Rub the outside with salt.
Set the oven at 150 c, Gas 4.
Place the lamb on a roasting tin and roast the joint slowly for two hours, so that the fat melts out and the meat is tender with some crackling skin on the outside. Pour any excess fat into a large glass jar. Do not pour down the sink as it sets solid in the u bend and is impossible to budge!
Put the roast potatoes in after about an hour and baste with some of the fat.
Serve with some green vegetables and gravy. Carve the meat by cutting into medium slices, lifting them so that the stuffing doesn’t fall out. Put in a warm oven to keep warm until ready to serve.
The most popular meat dish of all cooking lessons must be shepherd’s pie, which should be made from lamb, since shepherds look after sheep, but since it was cheap and affordable, we made it from minced beef. These days you can choose leaner minced beef to reduce the fat. In the 70s, we even fried the fatty meat in lard.
This recipe leaves out the lard I would have used for frying the beef and also the OXO stock cube. Tomato paste has been substituted for tomato ketchup in the original recipe.
500 g minced beef
1 onion, peeled and finely chopped (110g)
2 tbs tomato paste
1 carrot peeled and chopped
salt and pepper
600 g potatoes
25 g butter or margarine
2 tbs semi-skimmed milk
salt and pepper
You can use dried potato for the topping to save time
Place the minced beef and onion in a large saucepan and heat gently until the meat begins to brown. Stir in the tomato paste, salt and pepper. Add a little water.
Cover with a lid and cook for a further 5 minutes.
Boil some water, peel the potatoes, cut into quarters and add carefully to the saucepan of boiling water. Cover with a lid and cook for 20 minutes until the potatoes are soft.
Drain the potatoes in a colander over the sink. Return the drained potatoes to the saucepan.
Add the butter or margarine and mash the potatoes with a masher until smooth. Stir in the milk, salt and pepper. You could use dried potato flakes instead of raw potatoes.
Put the minced beef mixture into the serving dish and cover with a layer of the mashed potatoes.
Smooth down the top with a knife or decorate using a fork to make stripes on the top.
Grill the pie to make the top golden brown. Cut the tomato into slices and use to decorate the top of the pie.
In the 70’s New Zealand lamb sent demonstrators into British schools and provided us with recipe books and teaching resources including large posters to go on the wall. Mutton was also on the menu.
Philip Harben wrote a leaflet New Zealand lamb helpful hints which told us
‘New Zealand farmers believe in producing meat which the housewife likes and there are over 15 million housewives in Great Britain. New Zealand livestock has been bred from the best British strains and is hygienically wrapped and preserved in cold, clean air, for transportation to Great Britain in speedy refrigerated ships.’
The brand mark New Zealand was stamped on different parts of the animal.
When the UK joined the EEC in 1973 it was still a major market for NZ sheep meat and New Zealand sheep exports were allowed preferential access as a transitional measure from 1973 to 1977, as New Zealand had voluntarily restricted exports. After 1977, meat exports were subject to the European Union’s Common External Tariff of 20%. In 1980, New Zealand agreed to limit sheep meat exports to the European Union.
Today more than 70 per cent of the New Zealand lamb sold in Britain comes from halal slaughterhouses so that the New Zealand meat industry can sell its lamb in Muslim markets round the world.