Category Archives: Food GCSE Recipes

Sausage rolls with rough puff pastry


Sausage rolls with rough puff pastry
Makes 12

This is a very high fat recipe! Use shortcrust pastry for lower fat portions. Add seeds to increase the fibre.

sausage rolls
Ingredients
Rough puff pastry
200g strong flour
200g butter/margarine or lard – you choose
pinch salt
about 125ml cold water

Filling
300g sausage meat
egg for glaze

You can add sesame seeds, pumpkin and sunflower seeds to the glaze.

Method

  1. Preheat the oven to 200°C/ Fan 180°C/ Gas 6.
  2. Cut the fat into chunks – butter/margarine or lard – and work in with a knife.
  3. Pour in most of the water and mix to a stiff dough. Cover with cling film and rest in fridge for 20 minutes.
  4. Turn onto a floured board, form into an oblong. Roll out to about 20cm x 40cm.
  5. Fold the top third down then the bottom third. Turn the dough in a quarter turn.
  6. Roll out 3 times more, cover and chill.
  7. Cut the pastry in half and roll into 2 oblongs.
  8. Spread the sausage meat down each length. Wet the sides of the pastry and roll up and seal.
  9. Use a fork to prick and seal the edges of the pastry.
  10. Brush with beaten egg for glaze and clip the top with scissors. Put on a baking tray.
  11. Bake for 35-40 minutes until golden and crisp.

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Shortcrust pastry


Ingredients

200g plain flour
100g fat – choose butter, margarine, cooking fat, lard
Cold water to mix

Method

  1. Preheat the oven to 200°C/Gas 6.
  2. Rub 100g of fat into 200g plain flour and mix to a dough with cold water – about 2-4 tablespoons.
    Knead into a ball and wrap the dough in clingfilm and chill in the fridge for 20 minutes.
  3. Roll out the pastry  and bake in the oven for 15-20  minutes.

The science bit

Plain flour is used for pastry as a higher gluten flour like bread flour makes a tough pastry.
When water is mixed with the flour the gluten develops so shortcrust pastry uses very little water to keep it crisp and make shorter pastry.
If you overwork the pastry dough the gluten develops making tough, hard pastry.
Fats and oils shorten a flour mixture to make it crisp and crumbly in texture.
The fat forms a protective coating around flour particles, stops flour absorbing more water and makes shorter pastry.
The gluten sets with heat and forms the crisp, short pastry.

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Soufflé omelette


Soufflé omelette with cheese, tomatoes and pepperoni – Serves 2

This omelette is puffed up with beaten egg whites to make it light and fluffy.

Ingredients
4 eggs
50g grated cheese
½ teaspoon mixed herbs or fresh parsley
1 tablespoon oil
4 cherry tomatoes
50g pepperoni or salami sausage, sliced

Method

  1. Separate the eggs into yolks and whites in 2 bowls.
  2. Put the cheese and herbs into the yolks, beat and season.
  3. Whisk the egg whites until they are light and fluffy.
    Gently stir in the egg yolk mixture.
  4. Heat the oil in a frying pan and tip in the egg mix.
    Cook as the mixture sets then top with the tomatoes and slices of pepperoni.
  5. Place the pan under the grill – take care not to put the handle under the heat.
    Grill until the top is puffed up and golden.
  6. Serve the soufflé omelette straight away with a salad.

The science bit

The egg protein denatures, coagulates and sets with the heat and this binds the ingredients together.
When the egg whites are whisked, the protein extends and surrounds and traps the air bubbles, creating a colloidal foam – a gas-in-liquid foam.
When the soufflé omelette is cooked, the air expands with heat and the egg proteins set and coagulate making a light, soft omelette.

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Crème caramel


Crème caramel – Serves 2
Caramel is used to make sweet dishes such as oranges in caramel and crème caramel which is a creamy custard cooked on top of a layer of caramel.
DO NOT TASTE THE CARAMEL AS IT IS SO HOT IT WILL BURN!

 

Ingredients
Caramel
50g sugar
2 tablespoons water
Custard
2 eggs
10g caster sugar – 2 teaspoons
½ teaspoon vanilla extract
200ml whole milk

Method

  1. Preheat the oven to 150°C/Gas 2. Use 2 ramekin dishes or 2 oven proof tea cups to cook the custard.
  2. Make the caramel. Heat the sugar and water in a saucepan, stirring until the sugar dissolves. Boil without stirring until the sugar turns dark brown.
  3. Pour the caramel into each of the ramekin dishes and leave to cool. Take care as it is very hot!
  4. Whisk the eggs, sugar and vanilla extract with a whisk until smooth. Beat in the milk.
    Strain into a measuring jug then pour into each of the ramekins.
  5. Put the ramekins in a roasting tin which is half filled with boiling water. This is called a bain marie.
  6. Cook for 20-30 minutes in the oven until the custard is set.
  7. Cool before serving. Chill in the fridge if possible. Loosen the edges of the custard, cover with a plate and tip out onto the plate with the caramel topping.

The science bit

Sugar turns brown as it is made into caramel which adds a strong flavour to the recipe.
During heating, the protein in the eggs and milk sets, coagulates and forms a matrix through the mixture which makes the soft custard.

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Meringues


Mini meringues – Makes 8
You can pipe or spoon the meringue shapes.

Ingredients
2 large egg whites or ready to use egg white
110g caster sugar
Filling – whipped cream, cream cheese, mascarpone or fromage frais and a little sugar
Decorate with chopped strawberries and sprinkle on icing sugar.

 

Method

  1. Line the baking tray with parchment paper.
  2. Preheat the oven 140°C/Gas 1.
  3. Crack the eggs to separate the whites from the yolks – or buy liquid egg white.
  4. Put the egg whites in a bowl and whisk until the egg whites are fluffy.
  5. Slowly add the sugar. If you add the sugar too early it stops the egg proteins from extending to form the foam network. You need sugar to keep the foam stable when it cooks and becomes crisp.
  6. If you’ve beaten the egg whites too much, the foam breaks down, so whisk another egg white and stir into the mixture.
  7. Pile 8 heaped dessert spoons of the meringue onto the parchment paper or pipe as stars.
  8. Bake in the oven for time needed to crisp the meringue.
  9. You can whisk some whipping cream and make another foam to pile onto the meringue with fruit for decoration.

The science bit

The egg whites are beaten to form a foam.
The egg white protein, albumen, uncoils and forms a network trapping the air.
When the meringue cooks, the air expands and pushes up the protein which denatures, coagulates and sets, forming the crisp meringue.

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Lemon meringue


Lemon meringue – Serves 4
This lemon pudding is like lemon meringue pie with no pastry. It is lemon sauce with meringue topping. This means the recipe is more nutritious in my opinion – less fat!

Ingredients
1 very large lemon or 2 small lemons (180g weight)
150ml boiling water
15g cornflour
25g butter or margarine
40g caster sugar
2 egg yolks
Meringue
2 egg whites
60g caster sugar

Method

  1. Preheat the oven 170°C/Gas 3.
  2. Blend the cornflour with a little cold water and add the lemon juice and rind. Stir in the boiling water and put in a saucepan with the butter and sugar. Stir until the sauce thickens and become clearer. Remove from heat, leave to cool.
  3. Whisk the egg whites until softly stiff and add the sugar carefully.
  4. Stir the egg yolks into the lemon sauce and pour into ramekins or an ovenproof dish.
  5. Spoon the meringue over the lemon filling and lift into peaks.
  6. Put the ramekins in a roasting tin with a little hot water to protect the lemon sauce during cooking.
  7. Bake in the oven for 20 minutes until the meringue is crisp and slightly golden. Serve hot or cold.

The science bit

There’s a lot of science going on in this dish.
The starch in the cornflour swells, absorbs the water and gelatinises. This makes a smooth, thickened, clear sauce.
The protein in the egg yolks, when heated in the oven, denatures, coagulates and forms a network through the sauce which makes it thicken a bit more.
The egg whites are beaten to form a foam. The egg white protein, albumen, uncoils and forms a network trapping the air.
When the meringue cooks, the air expands and pushes up the protein which denatures, coagulates and sets, forming the crisp meringue.
The cornflour and water mixture is thick for a short time, but breaks down with further heating and water is forced out. This process is known as retrogradation.
When cold, starch sets the mixture by a process of gelation.

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Mayonnaise


Mayonnaise
This can take 5-10 minutes to make. You must go slowly when adding the oil.
The egg and oil need to be at room temperature.

Ingredients
1 egg yolk – at room temperature
pinch of salt
pinch of mustard powder
pinch of finely ground pepper
200ml vegetable oil – you can use a little olive oil for flavour
1 teaspoon white wine vinegar

Method

  1. Separate the yolk from the white. Use the white for meringues or an experiment.
  2. Put the egg yolk in a large, clean bowl. Stand the bowl on a damp dishcloth to stop it from slipping.
  3. Add the salt, mustard and pepper and whisk with a balloon whisk to make it thick and sticky so it is ready to take in the oil.
  4. Slowly – a ½ teaspoon at a time – whisk in the oil. Take time over this as you need to get the oil and egg to blend together. This takes a few minutes and the egg yolk and oil mixture begins to thicken and emulsify. Once the emulsification process has happened the oil can be added easily.
  5. Add more of the oil slowly – if the mixture gets too thick add a little warm water.
  6. Stir in vinegar and taste. Add seasoning if needed. Store in the fridge and use within 3-5 days.

The science bit

Egg yolks contain emulsifying agents including lecithin which form an emulsion where one liquid is dispersed in another.
Mayonnaise is an oil in water emulsion made from egg yolk, seasoning and oil.
The liquid in the egg holds the oil in an emulsion – just like emulsion paint.
If the recipe curdles, the oil has not mixed with the egg and the mixture separates.
The colour of the mayonnaise turns from yellow to cream as the mixture emulsifies.
The salt helps to thicken the yolk and the mustard helps with emulsification.

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